Stress in Hospital
Musical Background in the hospital world:
For a long time research on the accompaniment of music in hospital processes have given a worthwhile response on their effects in the relaxation of the patients. Here is a recent article that talks about it:
-> Extract of El Mundo, article by Laura Tardón, 15.04.2009
THERAPY TO REDUCE ANGUISH
Music, medicine for the heart
* Hearing musical pieces can reduce the heart rate and blood pressure
* This practice, in addition, eases the anxiety in patients with myocardial infarction
Music as therapy helps reduce the anguish of patients with coronary pathologies.
MADRID. - A melody, a bit of rhythm and much harmony are the components of a recipe which helps to reduce stress. The use of music as relaxation therapy has spread over the years throughout the world and its benefits in patients with cardiovascular diseases have been the object of numerous studies.
Now, a review published in 'The Cochrane Library' concludes that listening to music can help reduce blood pressure, the heart rhythm, the respiratory rate, anxiety and pain in this type of patients.
"Normally, [these sick patients] they feel anguished by the diagnosis, the hospitalization, the surgical processes, uncertainty, the fear to die, doubts on the progress of their recovery, the impotence and the loss of control over their situation," explained the authors of the review.
Sergio Manzano, a cardiologist from the Hospital Universitario Virgen de la Arrixaca, in Murcia, explains that "Upon panic or danger situations our organism defends itself. The sympathetic nervous system is activated and adrenalin and noradrenalin are released ".
They are substances identified as catecholamine's, "whose function is to increase the heart rate frequency and blood pressure, essential in certain situations to ensure adequate blood flow to the different systems of the organism. What happens is that when they are produced in excess, it can be harmful to the heart, especially for people with previous heart problems," exposes Enrique Asín Cardiel, head of service of Cardiology in the Hospital Ramon y Cajal of Madrid and director of the Heart Institute of the named hospital.
"Its effects are responsible for the patient with cardiovascular disease to have increased risk of complications, including sudden death, so it would be especially important that the treatment of these people also include the attention to their psychological needs," argues Joke Bradt, director of the review, published in Cochrane Library.
And it is at this point where music could play an important role. To check their effects on these types of patients, the authors of the review have analyzed 23 clinical tests, with a total of 1,461 participants, comparing the results of a group of subjects that have received the conventional care and those who, in addition, have heard music as a therapeutic measure.
"We chose published and unpublished studies, always including randomly chosen individuals, we contacted their authors and other relevant experts, looked on the internet to locate research centers that had addressed the use of music in the treatment of cardiovascular disease...", explain those responsible for this investigation. Classical music, country, jazz...
The majority of the projects applied a single session of music, about 30 minutes, during hospitalization of people who had suffered a myocardial infarction, those who had undergone surgery and those who were in rehabilitation phase. Sixty seven percent of the participants were male and with an average age of 63.3 years, from seven different regions: US, Canada, Australia, Denmark, Germany and Hong Kong. All the tests used relaxing music, fundamentally classical music, of country style and jazz.
"The results of this review indicated that listening to music can be an effective intervention to reduce the heart rate and blood pressure in people with cardiovascular disease and lessens anxiety in patients with myocardial infarction," conclude the people responsible for this project. "Also it decreases the breathing rate and the pain, but these effects were minor and its relevance is not clear", added the experts.
"I know that in some hospitals in the United States music is used while the patient waits in the waiting room (15 minutes) prior to being submitted to a catheterization and also during such intervention. In addition, drawings are also projected on the ceiling as a way of distraction," says Dr. Manzano.
Enrique Asín Cardiel points out, taking into account the relaxing effect of certain styles of music, from the theoretical point of view, it has positive results for the anxiety and the heart, but it is not shown in actual practice, because of the variability in which tests behave that have been done until this moment". Studies done with certain partiality.
Numerous studies developed with children, cancer patients, before and after a surgical intervention, have shown that music reduces anxiety and anguish, however, "its effectiveness in patients with heart disease requires further research, since the tests that we analyzed were small, from an average of 50 participants each, and the styles of music varied, the duration and the number of sessions," warns Bradt.
For example, a differentiator element between tests was that some worked with music selected by the health personnel, while others left the participants to choose between proposals previously valued by such personnel.
In addition, only two of the projects analyzed meet with the cooperation of trained therapists in this field, the rest used interventions in which patients listened to recorded music on a CD given to them by health professionals.
"This initial investigation shows that it is worth discovering how music can help patients for heart disease. Specifically, it would be interesting to know more about the potential benefits of the music provided by professional therapists, which could differ from the associated with the recorded music," says Bradt.